目的 了解重庆西南地区吸入性变应原的分布情况，从而为该地区过敏性鼻炎（Allergic rhinitis, 以下简称AR）的防治提供流行病学依据。 方法 该研究为回顾性数据收集研究，收集2017年1月至2020年8月在重庆医科大学附属永川医院进行过敏原检查患者4199例，按照年龄、检测时间和性别等统计各过敏原阳性率，分析流行特征和变化趋势。 结果 ①在4199例疑似AR患者中，其中症状、体征和皮内试验结果相符合的总共有3488例，整体阳性率为83.07％。②排列前三位的吸入性变应原依次为户尘螨、粉尘螨和多价昆虫。③总体而言，夏季的总阳性率最高，季节之间变应原阳性率的差异有统计学意义（X2=22.11，P＜0.001）。④男女患者的变应原总阳性率差异有统计学意义（X2=10.47，P=0.001），但绝大部分变应原阳性率与性别无相关性。⑤随着年龄的增长，吸入性过敏原阳性率逐渐减低；各年龄组的总体阳性率有统计学意义（P＜0.001）。⑥患者阳性变应原个数的分布显示，三重变应原阳性位列首位（11.70％）。 结论 重庆西南地区的主要变应原为户尘螨，变应原的总体阳性率与患者性别、季节以及年龄有关。
OBJECTIVES To determine the distribution of aeroallergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in southwest Chongqing,so as to provide epidemiological evidence for the prevention and treatment of Allergic rhinitis (AR) in this area. METHODS This study was a retrospective data collection study. A total of 4199 patients with allergen examinations were collected from Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2017 to August 2020. The positive rate of each allergen was counted according to age,seasons,gender,and so on. The epidemiological characteristics and trends were analyzed. RESUITS ①Among the 4199 suspected AR patients,there were 3488 cases whose symptoms,signs,and intracutaneous test results were consistent,with an overall positive rate of 83.07％.②The most common aeroallergens were dermatophagoides pteronyssinus ,dermatophagoides farin ,and poiyvalent insects.③In general,there were statistically significant differences among the positive rate of allergen in each season,of which the positive rate was highest in summer.④There was significant difference of the positive rate about the allergen between the male and female,and there was no significant correlation between most allergens and gender.⑤With the increase of age,the positive rate of aeroallergens decreased gradually; overall positive rate was significant for each age group (P <0.001).⑥In all groups,patients with triple positive allergens were the most commom. Conclusion The main allergen in southwest Chongqing is dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The positive rate of allergen has relationship with the patients' gender,the age of patients and the presentation season.